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Offshore Passagemaking Standard (108)

Prerequisites:All previous Keelboat and Navigation Standards

General Description: The student is able to safely act as skipper or crew in a sailing vessel on offshore passages requiring celestial navigation.

SAILING KNOWLEDGE A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

Passage Planning
  1. Plan a passage across the North Atlantic or Pacific and state the advantages, disadvantages and hazards of various routes. "Ocean Passages for the World", Climatic Charts, Great Circle Plotting Charts, plotting instruments, etc., must be used.
  2. Plot a series of rhumb lines on a mercator chart to approximate a great circle route.
  3. List the publications required for prudent navigation on an offshore passage to include the following:

    Coastal charts and publications Work sheets
    Ocean Passages for the World Nautical almanac
    Sight reduction tables Plotting sheets

    Voyage Preparation

  4. State the essential factors to be considered when selecting a vessel for an offshore ocean passage of at least 1000 miles:

    Hull shape Hull construction Displacement
    Rudder Keel Rig
    Machinery Water capacity Fuel capacity
    Sails Interior layout

  5. List all items essential for minor repairs to vessel and rigging.
  6. Describe various items required to prevent chafe.
  7. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of three self steering methods/devices.
  8. List all basic items necessary to repair sails.
  9. Plan meals for a minimum of four people on a seven day offshore passage.
  10. Describe the proper methods of preserving/storing food and the expected storage life of all food.
  11. State the factors to be considered when selecting crew members for an offshore passage:

    Health Attitude Compatibility
    Experience Physical capability

  12. Describe suitable clothing for the voyage.
  13. State a source of obtaining advanced first aid information while on an offshore passage.
  14. Identify and describe the basic treatment of potential medical problems.
  15. Describe methods of preventing injury to the cook or nearby persons while cooking at sea.
  16. List the items carried in a proper first aid kit for an offshore passage.
  17. Prepare and file a passage plan.

    Shipboard Routines
  18. Describe three (3) watchkeeping systems and their applicatior4 advantages and disadvantages.
  19. Describe alternate watchkeeping arrangements in the event crew members are incapacitated.
  20. Describe the duties of the watch and off watch.
  21. Establish a routine, schedule to periodically maintain the following items:

    Bilges Sea cocks Rigging

    Hatches Helm
    Galley & supplies Fuel and water Machinery
    Safety equipment Electronic equipment

  22. Set up a routine schedule for vessel cleaning.

    Emergency Procedures
  23. Describe how to rig a trailing man overboard line with an alarm.
  24. Describe an alternative method of alerting the crew to a man overboard situation. State other emergency situations when you should limit the use of this device.
  25. Describe what actions should be taken when a man overboard is not located on the first pass.
  26. Describe how to organize the crew for a routine fire drill.
  27. Describe possible methods of jury rigging your vessel in the event of dismasting and what course you would then assume.
  28. Describe proper actions you would take after your vessel has been struck by lightning.
  29. List essential survival items to be kept in a standby kit in the event you are forced to abandon ship offshore.
  30. Describe additional items useful for your survival and rescue.
  31. State the dangers you might encounter in a small rubber liferaft at sea.
  32. List safety equipment you would cam in addition to that required by the United States Coast Guard.

    Rules of the Road
  33. Know and apply the 1972 International Regulation for Preventing Collision at Sea (Navigation Rules) quickly and correctly in order to maintain safe navigation in any waters day and night-
  34. List eight of ten international distress signals.


  35. Acted as skipper and crew on an offshore passage of no less than 72 hours and 100 NM without touching land.

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

  36. Obtain a celestial fix using a sun-run-sun or three (3) celestial bodies.
  37. Obtain a celestial heading cheek.
  38. Apply all sailing knowledge stated in the ASA Celestial Navigation Standard.